In the book they were talking about how in the lower 48 states they were putting fish from fish hatcheries in the rivers and the fish hatchery fish drove the wild salmon to extinction. I think we need to do a better job and put more research into what we do to help the salmon population. If we were to be more careful then we wouldnt have to spend even more money trying to fix our mistakes with the rivers.
As far as I know, Salmo domesticus, is like a chicken. Paul Greenberg described how they first created the frankenfish in Four Fish, and frankenfish is the right word for it. They took a bunch of different strains of Atlantic Salmon and bred them together, selective breeding, and created a fish that grows fast, doesn’t eat as much, and doesn’t mind living life in a pen. Amazingly, the fish seem to be able to adapt to life like a normal salmon when they break free and survive. In Four Fish, Greenberg does state that these frankenfish manage to breed in rivers and carry on with their steelhead-esque life, slowly bringing salmon runs back to the East Coast of Canada. Although that is a good thing in my mind, and I also like the fact that they manage to really take strain off of the wild salmon left, I feel that farming them in the Pacific Ocean and down in the Southern Hemisphere can be incredibly harmful due to the same reason they are a good thing in the Atlantic. I have heard reports of pens breaking open in British Columbia and the salmon running up rivers on the West Cost, making them an invasive species.
I think Salmo Domesticus means salmon that are no longer wild in any way. The salmo domesticus in the way that Greenberg described it is, I believe, salmon that are genetically altered, grown, and farmed, all with the intent to meet the demand for salmon. The AquaAdvantage Salmon that is genetically modified and created for no other reason that to provide for the fishery. The salmo domesticus are fish who are genetically changed for some reason. They grow faster and require less food. Changes that lower the cost of raising the fish and elevate the qualities desired in order to achieve the best productivity from the fish. I believe we are on the way to having salmo domesticus in the lower fort- eight with the hatcheries that provide for the fisheries in rivers where the wild fish don’t or can’t populate. The hatcheries needing to supplement the fisheries were the first steps towards salmo domesticus. Over the years as we bred the salmon for the traits, we desired it’s gotten closer to the end game of salmo domesticus.
I think the salmo domesticus have pros and cons. They help us take the pressure of wild fisheries by making them more efficient and turn out fish faster. However, I worry that with it people will turn a blind eye to the wild salmon that aren’t genetically altered, and if those numbers drop the public won’t notice. It’s also possible that the public won’t care since the needs of the consumers would be met.
Salmo Domesticus is a genetically distinct domesticated variant species of salmon that originated in Norway. It was bred from Atlantic salmon to be fast growing and convert food to body mass more efficiently. Salmo domesticus quickly became popular with fish farmers. One of the issues with farmed salmon is accidental release. Salmon are often farmed in open net pens in the open oceans right off shore, these net pens can sometimes break and release huge numbers of domesticated salmon into the wild. These fish then interbreed with wild salmon. The spawn of wild and domesticated salmon are unable to survive in the wild like 100% wild salmon are, this is a threat to wild salmon stocks.
I think that Salmo domesticus has the potential to be both a blessing and a curse depending on how the salmon aquaculture industry develops. If the aquaculture industry moves away from open net pens and towards more efficient and secure methods of farming salmon then I believe that Salmo domesticus has the potential to be a huge asset going forward. Salmon farming has the potential to help relieve the pressure on wild salmon stocks and help return wild salmon to a more sustainable luxury product. However, if open net pens and other destructive methods of farming salmon continue they will inevitably damage wild salmon stocks and destroy the salmon across the world. In short, Salmo domesticus has great potential to be a huge part of sustainable worldwide food security but if it is improperly managed it will destroy the worldwide salmon industry.
Salmo Domesticus, explained by Paul Greenburg, is a farmed salmon that is now genetically different than the salmon they originated from. They are genetically distinct from wild Salmon because they have a different genome. The farmed salmon are becoming more efficient at producing larger body mass with less nutritional input. Salmon that can become bigger with less food is desirable to salmon farmers. These salmon being farmed are not good for the wild salmon populations because they are being released at more significant quantities than the wild salmon to the open ocean and compete for available prey to consume. The farmed salmon do not have the same adaptive traits that wild salmon do, allowing wild salmon to span upstreams that farmed salmon cannot navigate.
I see the Salmo Domesticus as a blessing and a curse for different reasons. They are a blessing for many in the fisheries because they provide income for many small towns limited to the outside world. Farmed salmon have fed many people providing a healthy meal all over the world. The curse is that they compete against the wild salmon for food. Many people rely on wild salmon to return as a way of life, and they will be hurt more than financially by farmed salmon competition. The more farmed salmon there is, the more food taken from the ocean and other trophic levels. I don’t believe that we will ever know the impact of farmed salmon on wild salmon. The book says we would have to not release farmed salmon to know. I believe the economic impact is too significant to find out.
Salmo domesticus is farm of domesticated salmon that we wild salmon generations before. Originally Salmo domesticus was an experiement created by Gjedrem and his thesis advisor Harald Skjervold, to help the declining population of Atlantic salmon. They modeled their fish farm from two Norwegian brothers named Sivert and Ove Grontvedt. The to brothers experimented with salmon by catching juveniles and raising them in nets suspended in clear water. Since salmon are adaptable fish with their eggs being large, juvenile salmon would feed off their oily yolk after hatching. By keeping large predators away, feeding the salmon herring after they would grow in size, and trial an error the Grontvedt brothers would finally have a steady growth of salmon. Since Gjedrem and Harald were modeling their salmon farm after the Grontvedt brothers, they would choose different fish with particular traits to keep and raise. With still a vast amounts of wild salmon, Gjedrem and Harald would pull salmon from 40 different streams and raise them with the understanding that salmon would grow faster. With the cross breeding after generations and generations of salmon, the growth rate of those farmed salmon doubled. The end result there are now millions of those fish around the globe. Though domestication and cross breeding of salmon is beneficial to keep the salmon species to live, I believe that it has adverse reactions. We created Salmo domesticus to keep the salmon species from dying out, but since cross breeding salmon and the demand for salmon is high the identity of true wild salmon themselves are dying out. Since “wild” salmon are fish that lay millions of eggs with maybe half of them hatching, raising them would make the true meaning of “wild” obsolete.
According to Greenberg, Salmo domesticus is the most successful salmon in the world. But what is it? Salmo domesticus is the end result of a Norwegian breeding program aimed at producing a salmon that grew bigger, faster. One thing that enabled them to do this was the enormous genetic potential within the wild salmon population. Early breeders discovered that by crossing all the lines of different salmon families you would get a salmon that grew faster than the previous generation. So, within just two generations the Norwegians were able to create a salmon with double the growth rate compared to its wild counterpart.
When trying to decide if Salmo domesticus is a blessing or a curse I remembered this quote from the book, ”Humans now outnumber wild salmon by a ratio of seven to one. What would happen if every human on earth demanded wild salmon instead of farmed salmon? Instant extinction.”
I think that with most human advancements Salmo domesticus has the potential to be both. Regardless we created it, it probably is not going to go away so it needs to be managed responsibly so as not to become a liability to our wild stock and the communities that rely on those wild populations . However, with responsible management, I think it has the potential to bring a more affordable salmon to the dinner table. Especially in areas where fish is not a readily available animal protein and is expensive.
The Norwegian brothers spent generations on expending their vision on the expansion of farmed salmon production. They took into consideration of wild cattle becoming domesticated well before their lifetime. The breeding of salmon came from 40 different rivers. Every species had similar but yet different character and traits. Salmon are very unique when considering the amount of offspring they can have. Their eggs are very large when compared to other species which created ample opportunity to generate or manipulate a living species. Through innovation and creativity, they expanded their farmed salmon into a global enterprise. The foundation was laid before them with many questions unanswered, and I see it as them taking the initiative and applying their knowledge to create to the product seen throughout the markets today.
I can see salmo domesticus being as simple as newly farmed salmon adapting to their new environments. They are no longer wild and surviving within different regions has been instilled genetically. Regardless of where their original genes may have came from, they now have been genetically modified or engineered (whatever you want to call it) from genetic material from ocean pout to help create a sort of different brand of their species. A species that would amplify the growth rate year round. These genetically engineered salmon will reach their market size in a shorter period when compared to regular farmed salmon.
A great point was made in class today about being no hatchery within the Yukon system. Was there ever attempts made to create one or leaving it as a Wild river by choice? I believe the Native people within the Yukon could definitely coexist with this new balance. They may lose the findings of wild salmon, but at the same time find new opportunities to continue tradition. One who may reap the benefits would go to global corporation such as AquaBounty. They are the Amazon (company) of all the “fresh market” fish well se in our supermarkets. I will say that creating anything that is not natural have great potential of leading to a devastating outcome when going unchecked. I honestly have not looked into depth on this matter, but without long term trials of this rubbish will make me stand by. I see the consumers being the ones suffering. This company will produce salmon eggs in a research hatchery and ship those eggs to Panama where the fish will be raised to market size. I have to ask myself how this farming differs from something like a cattle farm? Maybe the exploitation of science is not the best course of action when it comes to food security? Sorry for the ranting.
when Greenberg mentions salmo domesticus, he essentially means domesticated salmon. so in other words, he means fish that are born and raised in enclosed environments, like hatcheries for instance. according to my readings, domesticated salmon originated when small tribes caught salmon and attempted to breed them in enclosed environments so they were able to have easier acess to their resources without having to fish for them. it then began to grow at a larger, more economic scale, then Norway began to catch on and to this day is still one of the worlds larges salmon producing countries.
alot of people think that salmo domesticus are a curse, but i personally consider it a blessing. although it is true that “domesticated salmon” arent exactly wild salmon and there are some negative effects to having salmo domesticus in the wild, but i belive the positive effects far outweigh the negative. if salmon are grown in controlled environments, they can become much larger and provide more nutrients to many communities, so if salmo domesticus become a major part of many peoples daily lives, they will be able to feed many more people over time.
Salmo Domesticus, or better yet, domestic salmon are salmon whose genetics have been carefully chosen to profit, grow and reproduce the fastest with the least work. They are much like your typical broiler chicken who grows too large to stand by month three of growth and is good for nothing but the dinner table. Using selective breeding, performance traits are bred into the domesticated species making it extremely dangerous just in itself to the wild populations. I remember reading a related study that proved after multiple generations of sitting in extremely crowded raceways, juvenile farmed salmon much out-competed wild salmon in that life stage due to learned aggression. (I will attach said study when I locate it!) These Norwegian bred farmed salmon now have stronger survival traits (such as aggression), increased disease resistance and increased growth rates, among other things. The possibility of these farmed fish interbreeding with wild fish and ruining genetic adaptiveness of wild fish is likely and is already in motion. The fight for space and food is also a very worrisome possibility. Genetics can be altered immensely when these, basically invasive species, are introduced due to populations sizes being changed and genetic drift taking place.
So, to put it in perspective: Imagine farmed fish with the strong survival rates due to increased aggression and size at the juvenile stage being put in with wild fish who are smaller and lack the aggression. The fish who survive (farmed) have lower genetic diversity, reduced predator response, lower survival in wild after the juvenile stage, smaller eggs, less drive to spawn properly, a completely different body and fin shape and also have absolutely no stream knowledge. The farmed fish show up late to rivers and dig up the wild fish eggs, thus replacing wild offspring with their own. These farmed fish risk killing off our entire wild population in time and destroying the wild gene pool forever. Once these farmed fish in the wild hit maturity, they risk not even spawning or surviving. Could this mean a total loss of salmon? I think we can suspect that as an outcome far down the road.