To study for this quiz, I mostly used my notes, taken from the slides that were provided by Professor Wesley. The lectures have been super helpful, as well. My notes have been fairly detailed since I cannot attend class in person. That part has been a little difficult, because I feel like I miss out on asking questions “in the moment”. To be honest, I’m not sure how I did on the quiz, so I can’t really say if my study tactics worked very well. I think I was able to cover most of the information that was required to answer the questions in full. Mainly, I studied the different topics from each slide. In my notes, I created headings for each topic, then added bullets under each heading. Within the bulleted lines, I highlighted or underlined words that were new to me, such as adaptive evolution or cave/surface form. Then, I made sure those new concepts were well defined in my notes. In addition, I highlighted all the new information given to us for the different fish that were used as examples. The one question that I felt like I didn’t really have a solid answer for was the question about Gollum. I had to write an educated guess, based on what “fishes” means. If “Lord of the Rings” was discussed in one of the lectures, I have no memory of that. LOL. The one thing I might do differently for the midterm is organize my notes a little better. I may have placed too much information in them. Also, I wrote a little sloppy when I took some of my notes, which meant I had to try and decipher my own handwriting, then rewrite it so I could read it. That was a waste of my study time.
Salmo domesticus is a term that applies to the farming or “domestication” of salmon. I loved this section of the chapter. I had no idea how fish farming evolved, and Paul Greenberg explained it very well. According to Greenberg, In the 1960’s, Norwegian brothers Sivert and Ove Grontvedt began collecting Atlantic salmon juveniles and raising them in nets suspended in the fjords of Hitra, Norway. This was done in response to the dwindling stocks of wild Atlantic salmon throughout the world. Seeing the success the Grontvedt brothers were having with cultivating fish, Norwegian animal breeder Trygve Gjedrem decided to apply the same breeding techniques that were being used in agriculture (trait selecting) to the breeding process with farmed Atlantic salmon. It took only 14 years for the Norwegians to double the growth rate of these fish. By 1971, Norway’s Salmo domesticus were being shipped to starving countries all over the world.
I have very mixed feelings regarding Salmo domesticus. I think the concept of fish farms is pretty incredible, and started out with all the right intentions. On one hand, the fact that Atlantic salmon are now being produced in countries that never before had this option, is pretty amazing. On the other hand, the waste being produced, the hormones and antibiotics being fed to the fish, and the pesticides being used are creating environmental and health concerns. However, I believe these farms are ultimately a good thing. Wild fish are diminishing, and as long as cultivators can find a way to keep a species alive, without wreaking havoc on the environment, then I believe fish farms could be beneficial as a consumer product.
When Paul Greenberg made that statement, I believe it was due to the fact that the Yupik people rely heavily on wild salmon for survival in many ways. Not only for subsistence purposes, but for financial income, as well. Harvesting salmon is a way of life for the Yupik. They consume it all year round, they use it for dog food, they use it for bait, and they fish for it commercially. In addition, like his experience in the book while visiting the Yukon to fish with Ray Waska Jr, the Yupik use it to barter with. If the future of wild salmon continues to decline, as it is, then the Yupik people will have very little to survive on, both financially and through consumption. Two additional areas of concern are the rate of suicide and the poverty level among the Yupik. Because they receive very little assistance from the government and they are “off the grid”, losing salmon would be devastating to their population in a number of ways. And, if this happens, it may very well result in a higher suicide rate among them. The wild Pacific salmon stocks are declining and that is a major concern. Greenberg also mentioned the amount of Pacific salmon that die as a result of “bycatch”. This, along with climate changes, illegal catch, and pollution is causing concern for the future of the salmon species, which in turn, will create a real concern for the future of the Yupik people, so yes, I agree with Greenberg’s statement. This is an issue that should not be taken lightly.
Greenberg’s personal experience that set him on a journey to learn about fisheries stemmed from his love of fishing as a child, but became rooted when he returned to fishing as an adult. During his childhood, he began fishing in ponds and lakes, but as the fish became depleted, he found himself moving into streams and rivers, and then into the ocean to increase his catch. As an adult, he realized fishermen were having to go even further into the ocean to catch fish due to the continually decreasing schools along the shorelines. In addition, he noticed four particular kinds of fish that were being sold in grocery stores. That piqued his interest even more, causing him to learn about fisheries.
For me personally, I grew up fishing and still love it to this day. Living on an island where fish is plentiful and groceries are expensive, Sitka relies heavily on subsistence fishing. My first summer back after college, I was looking for a job and came across a “job for hire” ad for the Fish and Game Dept of AK. It was temporary, summertime work that required me to collect data and genetics from the code wires of tagged fish caught by commercial trollers. I love the job so much that I returned the following summer. Working for the Fish and Game for two summers gave me an insight on the importance of sustainability in our wildfish stocks. That led to my interest in working in the Fisheries industry.
I really like how Greenberg said “Four fish, then. Or rather four archetypes of fish flesh, which humanity is trying to master in one way or another, either through the management of a wild system, through the domestication and farming of individual species, or through the outright substitution of one species for another.” (pg. 11) and “but the fish we have chosen to tame are by and larger animals that satisfy whimsical gustatory predilections rather than the requirements of sound ecologically based husbandry.” (pg. 13). At this point in the book, I think Greenberg sees the health of world fisheries as somewhat dire. In need of help, but not necessarily to an extreme. By the end of the book, I think Greenberg will be a little more concerned, given the state our stocks are in. However, I also believe he will be optimistic that there is hope for recovery, since he has acknowledged the fact that fish stocks are capable of rebounding.