Due November 3 by 11:59pm

Figure 4.2 from Billion Dollar Fish on page 70.

As we know from the history of northern cod, the WWII era brought about massive change to global fisheries. Technology came, as did systematic record keeping by the FAO. We also know that 1976 was a big year with the passing of the Law of the Sea.

In a short post of at least 250 words describe the changes that occurred beginning in 1976 for the Alaska pollock fishery. In your response make clear you understand  the legislation that gave exclusive economic rights to countries 200 miles from their shores (related to Law of Sea but not same law) and what the heck a joint venture fishery is! Said another way, you want to be able to explain in your own words the patterns of catch that are described in Figure 4.2 on page 70. 

As usual respond to posts by the next day before midnight.



49 thoughts on “Due November 3 by 11:59pm”

  1. Before the new legislation limiting foreign fishermen, many foreign trawlers fished for pollock. It was a valuable resource and there were no laws on who could fish it. For many years, it was mostly foreign companies that fished for Alaskan pollock. Eventually, some people wanted more American fishermen to take advantage of local resources, and the idea of joint ventures allowed partnerships to be formed between American and foreign parties. American fishermen would collect the pollock and then deliver them to their foreign partner for processing. When the law excluding foreigners from the inner 200 miles of water came into effect, the numbers of foreign fleets involved in the fishery began to decline, while the joint ventures started to increase. They spiked because American labor wages were much higher, and it was cheaper to get foreign companies to process the fish. This way, the American fishermen were getting more involved, but the foreign companies were still getting profit out of the fishery. As Americanization continued, however, higher tariffs were placed on foreign processors to encourage American businesses towards being more involved in the fishery. The FCMA placed fees on foreign vessel permits, poundage caught, surcharge, and observer. This discouraged foreign fleets and joint ventures alike. Foreign vessels were having to pay high amounts to take part in the fishery, and continued regulations discouraged joint ventures from capitalizing as well. Joint ventures began to decline and American involvement increased as more American companies became responsible for processing the fish. By 1990, the Alaskan pollock fishery was mostly dominated by American fishers and processors.

    1. I think it’s really interesting how, as you said, the FCMA encouraged joint ventures and they increased, but that didn’t last long as Americans wanted to be able to have all the profits themselves. It seems like the Americanization of the industry happened really fast, with it being dominated by the US by 1990, less than 20 years after they inherited it!

    2. I like how you mentioned how while the FCMA while encouraging joint ventures and domestic fishing, they additionally discouraged foreign fleet fishing. it shows that the FCMA had multiple purposes!

    3. I liked how you brought up how American labor wages were a big part of the joint ventures. Because if America’s labor wages were lower, then these joint venture fisheries may not have ever existed.

  2. Prior to having legislation, there was no management of the pollock fisheries off the coast of North America. It wasn’t until the introduction of the Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976. Before the act was set in place, the harvesting of pollock was conducted by foreign fisheries. There were also many catches underreported in the 14 million tons of pollock claiming to have been pulled from the eastern Bering Sea. With the Act of 1976, the United States extended the fishing boundary out 200 miles out at sea. The federal government was still permitting foreign fishing, with the priority of quotas being reached for the US fishermen. Along with Americanization allowing for more encouragement of American businesses to be involved with foreign processors as the development on higher tariffs progressed. A lot of foreign fleets weren’t really in favor of this, while Alaskan fishermen strongly supported it. The FCMA was concerned about restricted shipping lanes, and the restricted access to patrol international waters. When the ACT was signed into law, the US fishermen inherited the worlds largest fishery. As far as joint venture fisheries go,  the first was for Pacific hake. Many west coast fishermen had operated bottom trawls, and not many had operated anything like a larger midwater trawl. They soon learned, that they could not operate doing this with the use of small boats. They needed to upgrade to bigger ships. Thus joint committees of fisheries began to decline, making more American companies in charge of processing the fish over foreign ones. The Alaskan Pollock fishery being one of these American dominated industries.

    1. It’s interesting to me how US fishermen found they were out of their depth when they had to switch to different trawlers, and while they did get some help through joint ventures, they wanted become independent very quickly and learned to do everything themselves. They were lucky to get the Alaska pollock industry, and once they had it they wanted to make sure that they were going to make it theirs completely.

    2. I think that underreporting of catches is such a crucial part to this story that I overlooked. It’s always important to keep fisheries sustainable by knowing accurate catch numbers, and it’s a good thing that new regulations made it harder to underreport the Alaska pollock fishery. If that had gone on for a lot longer, the fishery may not be nearly as valuable as it is today.

    3. I agree that before we had the FCMA, we were basically doomed. It opened a lot of doors for American fishermen and definitely created the fishery we can still see today.

    4. I like that you brought up the higher tariffs and the changing in trawlers! I imagine it was a big change that a lot of fishermen struggled to make the switch and learn to operate the new kind of trawler. Not to mention how overwhelming it probably was to suddenly have this huge fishery suddenly accessible to them that they hadn’t considered before.

  3. Prior to 1976, there was no regulation of the Alaska pollock fishery. US fishermen were not concerned with the fish as they were catching mostly ground fish. So, foreign fleets, mainly from Japan and the USSR fished in the Bering Sea and caught as much pollock as they wanted for themselves. Then, in 1976 the Fishery Conservation and Management Act was passed, which extended the fishing boundary to 200 miles into the sea. When this was passed, the United States took control of the world’s largest fishery, and they very quickly had to learn what to do with it. They started doing this with joint ventures, in which US ships caught all of the fish and then gave it to other countries for it to be processed. This did not last long, however, as Americans quickly began to realize that they were missing out on profits by allowing other countries to have their catch and profit from it themselves. The first step away from this was with a three-tiered quota amendment in the FCMA, which gave US processors priority over the catch, then foreign companies, and then finally foreign catches and foreign processors at the bottom. As time went on, the United States put Americanization into full force as they did their best to decrease foreign presences in the eastern Bering Sea. They imposed tariffs, as well as four types of fees on foreign vessels. The American vessels did not have to pay those fees, and in 1986 they founded Arctic Storm, a major US processor for pollock. As the United States increased their fleet and their capacity to catch all the pollock, there was no longer any place for foreign vessels in the industry.

    1. It’s really interesting to me how foreign companies were slowly squeezed out of the Alaska pollock fishery by increasing regulations. It was a gradual process, but I’m sure some managers of those foreign companies saw the writing on the wall that they would no longer be able to fish there. Still, it’s a sign of how valuable the pollock fishery is that so many foreign vessels were interested in harvesting from it until laws fully prevented them from doing so.

    2. ” The American vessels did not have to pay those fees, and in 1986 they founded Arctic Storm, a major US processor for pollock. ”
      I like how you brought this up, I also thought this was very interesting.

    3. It was a nice try that the USA tried to work with other countries but I also think it’s healthier and more profitable that everyone has their own separate way of doing things. I wouldn’t have been surprised back then if fisheries management started some sort of civil war! It makes me happy we take this stuff seriously. Great post!

    4. I think giving US processors priority over the catch was a wise first step. Adding fees must have been like adding salt to an open wound. I also think adding fees and tariffs was the right thing to do. The joint ventures project gave US fishing fleets the time they needed to learn the industry and businesses the time they needed to understand the foreign market, and when the time was right, the project was dissolved.

    5. I think it’s good that you pointed out that we were handed fishery so great that we were unsure of what to do with it even ourselves. The joint venture fisheries posed for a great lead possible growth, but ultimately ended up being squashed with act after act favoring domestic fishermen.

  4. Before the Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 there was no management of the pollock fisheries offshore. Foreign fisheries were harvesting the most and a large percent of this catch was not being reported by the book. With the creation of the act it put in place regulations such as fishing boundaries, 200 miles out. It also gave US pollock boats a home court advantage of sorts, the government prioritized US fisherman’s quotas. Looking at the graph Figure 4.2 from Billion Dollar Fish on page 70 you can observe the steep drop off that foreign interest took, whereas domestic parties benefited metric tons of fish. We saw the graph swap positions in many ways. I almost wonder if this act was a little too exclusive since foreigners dropped down to zero catch. To cut foreign vessels out entirely is pretty extreme of a mesure, luckily there were joint ventures. They allowed a partnerships between American and foreign parties to form and revenues increased. Now American companies were in charge of processing the fish over foreign ones. In addition to the Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 there was the ACT was signed. This gave the US fisherman the world’s most plentiful fishery, heck. We saw boats investing by upgrading to more cambable vessels to meet new demands. Therefore there was a decline in joint committees. Overall I think these, while extreme legislation helped boost the American economy and create more jobs, in shipyards building new trolls, processing plants, export and deckhands.

    1. It is a little scary to think that we were over harvesting and letting the foreign ships fish in our area to the point where we had no idea what the pollock population looked like! I like how you mentioned all the upgrades of the boats as well, technology plays a huge role in this. Great post!

    2. I think the joint ventures fishery was a brilliant idea in that it kept foreign relations from plummeting. When foreign industries lost out on one of the biggest products on the market, I imagine there was a lot of resentment. The joint venture project must have helped alleviate some of that frustration. The FCMA was a massive score for the US fishing industry, as well as the economy.

  5. In 1976, the Fishery Conservation and Management Act took place and started a pollock revolution and remained a good example to fisheries management around the world. Foreign fisheries were essentially cleaning out pollock and not counting stock abundance or recording landings so there was no way to tell what the pollock population looked like in 1976. The passing of this act restricted foreign fisheries to 200 miles from shore which gave the USA control of one of the world’s largest fisheries. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act made it possible for the United States to take back it’s fisheries and avoid collapsing and losing a valuable food and money source while at the same time, making it possible for foreign ships to still be involved in the shipping and processing of the fish, with small fees of course. The USA realized it was cheaper as well and partnered with foreign ships creating a joint venture fishery, making it possible to work together and introduced trading in the fish industry as well. After a period of time, the fees against foreign partnerships discouraged the joint venture fisheries and the USA started catching more fish on their own. That’s why the joint venture line in the graph increases and then rapidly decreases while the domestic dark line increases and foreign ship line decreases as well.

    1. I wonder how long it would have taken the Alaskan pollock stock to collapse if the FCMA had not been signed and put into place, or if it would have collapsed at all. My guess is that it would have collapsed sometime in the 90’s. I’m glad you mentioned that the fees also had an affect on the joint venture fishery. I think adding fees is ultimately what saved the US from having to pull the plug on the operation. It forced foreign industries to pull out on their own.

  6. Before we came to know the Law Of the Sea and The Mangnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act in 1976, we had no true management or control of the Alaskan Pollock fishery. It was merely a free-for-all. The FCMA was signed in and extended the fishery 200 miles off shore and thus created a huge, monumental, fishery for American fishermen. This act was created to prevent fisheries from collapsing and to help protect domestic fishermen from foreign competition. This deterred a lot of foreign fleets, though benefited all of the domestic fishermen. Initially, fish were being caught by domestic companies, then shipped to foreign companies for processing. Later tariffs would be imposed, further deterring any kind of interjection from any foreign company in the entire process of the fishery. After seeing a large crash from the foreign companies in the Eastern Berring Sea, attempting at joint venture fisheries (ex: domestic catch, foreign processing), but failing, the Americanization of the Alaskan Pollock Fishery finally took over. We no longer find foreign fleets beneficial in our Pollock Fishery and they no longer can benefit directly from our fisheries due to these acts and regulations signed in after 1976.

    1. I imagine the political push to secure and protect the Alaskan Pollock fishery was massive. I would love to have been a part of the conversations that took place. Not having any control over which foreign vessels fished closely to US shorelines would have been frustrating, not just from a business perspective but from a management perspective, as well. The constant worry about a collapse would have been rough.

  7. In 1976 the Fisheries and Conservation Management Act (FCMA) was passed. This act extended the US Fishery Conservation Zone (FCZ) from 3 miles to 200 miles. With this act in place priority was given to US fishers verses foreign powers. During this time American fishermen partnered with foreign business in joint ventures. The Americans would catch and transport the fish while countries overseas would process the meat. The first joint ventures were for the Pacific hake though new ventures with pollock began when crab populations drastically declined. The start of the pollock industry was slow going and required a boost. In 1980 an amendment to the FCMA, called the Fish and Chips Amendment, was passed that gave priority to foreign fisheries that assisted in joint ventures and creation of processing facilities. As pollock join ventures began to boom groups within the government and other parties began investigating ways to take the industry completely and remove the foreign influences. In 1985, Pacific Seafood Processing Association investigated the industry for purposes of providing recommendations on Americanization through a grant provided by the Saltonstall-Kennedy program of the US government. The investigation revealed that legislation, like the Jones Act, certain safety and environmental regulations, and other factors were impeding America’s ability to compete with foreign powers in the fishing industry. Political efforts began to increase the amount of domestic ventures. There were fees in place that favored domestic ventures over foreign vessels and more processing plants were developed. As this continued, joint ventures began to fade into the background as domestic fishing capacity met the limits in the FCZ and foreign vessel were completely edged out.

    1. I like the additional information you added regarding the Saltonstall-Kennedy program of the US government. The investigation proved to be very beneficial for the US fishing industry. It only makes sense to Americanize the fish caught in US waters. I wish we would do that with all the stocks caught in the US, and not export them only to be imported back into the US.

  8. If I understand this correctly, the legislation that gave exclusive economic rights to countries 200 miles from their shores was the Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA). It was this legislation that extended the jurisdiction of US fisheries (Fishery Conservation Zone – FCZ) from twelve miles offshore to 200 miles. The need for such an act was brought on in 1966, and took a decade to develop and pass, when Soviet factory processing ships showed up just off the Pacific coast and began fishing within the legal boundaries. Once the act was signed, the pollock industry fell into the hands of the US fisherman, but they still had a considerable amount to learn about the industry. Entering foreign markets would not be easy, so the concept of a joint venture fisheries was developed. In short, it allowed US fishermen to deliver the fish they caught to foreign factory ships for processing and marketing. As the chart indicates, this concept enabled US fishermen to catch more metric tons and reduce the amount caught by foreign fisheries. The joint venture fishery proved to be lucrative, and by 1985 it was seeing great success. However, US businesses and fishermen felt the industry should not have to rely on foreign countries to process and distribute the fish caught by US fleets. By then, fishermen had become better at catching pollock and more knowledgeable in foreign marketing, and the joint venture fishery was becoming less of a need. Serious efforts then started to Americanize the pollock fishery altogether, and by 1992 that goal was accomplished.

    1. Hi Zosha,
      I like that you mentioned a specific foreign party, the soviets. As well as mentioning the years that it took leading up to pass of the Fishery Conservation and Management Act. It took consideration as anything to develop a new plan for management and regulations. Finally I like that you talk about stock goals being met in 1992 and the decrease of joint revenues being used. I hadn’t thought of the brains behind the creation of the act.

    2. Zosha, I didn’t know it took a whole decade to pass the Fisheries Conservation and Management Act, that really shows how much it takes for change to happen sometimes. Well worded and very comprehensive, thank you.

    3. Hi Zosha,
      I like how you mention what led to the FCMA in 1966. I remember reading about it and wanted to mention it in my post but forgot where it was. It it interesting how quickly things can change when priorities shift. People originally supported the 3-mile limit in order to exploit the recourses of another country’s fish but changed their tune when Russia began doing the same off our coasts.

  9. To my understanding, before the FCMA was put into place there was little to no costal management of the Alaskan Pollok, and foreign countries fisherman were essentially fishing the Pollok out of existence in the area. then in 1976 the FCMA was put into place, which essentially limited the foreign fisherman from catching the Pollok which allowed them to recover substantially and put more of those fish into the local communities hands. that explains what is shown in the graph, right as the FCMA was put in place foreign Pollok catches dropped and right as they dropped, the domestic catches began to rise and right in the middle, joint venture, wich is an agreement that allowed both foreign and non foreign fisherman to catch fish together.

  10. To the best of my knowledge the FCMA (Fishery Conservation and Management Act) was passed in 1976 which put extensive regulations on the Alaska Pollock fishery, a fishery that had little in the way of regulations before that. It essentially made all waters within 200 nautical miles of the shore the exclusive fishing grounds of US fishermen. Previously, many of the fishermen who fished the pollock fishery where foreign, the FCMA stopped that. Prior to the FCMA most US based fishermen where not concerned with the pollock fishery and focused on other species, however the FCMA opened an entirely new industry for US commercial fishermen. The FCMA also helped to create joint ventures. Joint ventures are cooperative agreements between companies based in different countries that essentially pool resources for economic profit. They also let foreign industries into traditionally domestic markets. After the passage of the FCMA foreign pollock catch dropped to zero while domestic and join venture catch skyrocketed.

    1. Hi Eli,

      You worded that really well! I like how you mentioned that US fishermen were mainly focused on other species. When I was reading about it I kinda spaced that they still had other species to fish even though pollock was a pretty high priority for other people.

      Great post!

  11. Said another way, you want to be able to explain in your own words the patterns of catch that are described in Figure 4.2 on page 70.

    From my understanding the NMFS did not have any regulatory role except for mammals. Their state jurisdictions extended seaward to three miles offshore and after that would be the high seas. In 1966 Congress extended that jurisdiction to twelve miles offshore with the Fisheries conservations and Management Act (FCMA). It also extended the Fisheries Conservation Zone of the United States to 200 miles offshore. Many countries included the United States were ambitious to gear ocean fisheries to feed the rising population of the planet. At the time we did not know much about the seas so we thought that fish were plentiful and unlimited and so government agencies were tasks to establish fisheries and maintain the fish’s sustainability. With signage of FCMA, the United States adopted the world’s largest fisheries. With the lack of knowledge of fishing, cleaning, and marketing the fish, Jim Talbot had the idea that US fishermen would catch the fish and deliver them to foreign factors. Since the lack capacity and market for high volumes in the US the joint venture was used. From the mid 1970’s to around 1985 foreign fishing for pollock was completely dominating the Pacific. As the United states would learn how to fish their use of the joint venture peaked around 1987. Learning the tricks and trades on how to fish and process the pollock making the fisheries of foreign waters slowly decline in numbers of fishermen. As the years progressed the United States fishermen learn the tricks and trades to catch and process the fish from the joint venture. With the increase in demand of pollock in the States, the dependency of other countries to help sell the fish in mass quantities dwindled.

    1. I enjoyed how you brought up that many countries wanted to get into the fisheries business in order to feed the growing population of the planet. I had not even thought about the rising populations being a factor in fishery development.

  12. After pollock fishing was mainly dominated by foreign fishers since 1962 in the Sea of Okhotsk, an act, the Fisheries Conservation and Management Act, was passed in 1976 preventing foreign fishers from fishing within 200 miles off US shore. This left local fisheries to fish their own waters unimpeded. To gain footing in foreign marketing, the local US fisheries made joint ventures with the foreign fishers that were previously unable to fish within the 200 miles of shore, such as Soviet and Japanese fishers. These joint ventures, different countries teaming up to fish together, were greatly successful in catch and trade until the mid 1980’s when the US decided that US fisheries shouldn’t have to rely on foreign fishers to be successful anymore and by 1992, as seen in the figure, US fleets alone fished pollock and are the sole pollock fishers today.
    (Sorry this is a shorter post)

  13. There were no regulations for the Alaskan pollock industry before 1976. Before that there were many local fishermen who didn’t realize what, they were missing out on because they were catching other fish, while foreign fisheries were cashing in on the massive profit that came from the pollock industry. Another important factor that stood out to me, was that before the regulations were introduced there was a large amount of the catch not being reported or recorded properly. This of course endangers the sustainability of the fishery and I’m glad it started being regulated before it was wiped out the way the Newfoundland cod industry was. When the Fishery Conservation and Management Act was passed in 1976 there were new rules and regulations that completely changed how the industry was run. It put a 200 miles boundary in place for fishing, and gave priority to the US fishermen. Those fishermen would harvest the fish and then give them to the foreign companies for processing. While this was good for partnerships with foreign powers and helped to manage the fishery when the boundary gave America control of this large resource, soon the foreign powers were edged out as more and more American based companies got involved and it became so that it was more profitable to run the fishery in a US based fashion.
    You can see this timeline reflected on the chart, because foreign powers were doing almost all of the work of harvesting the pollock before the regulations were placed, after that joint ventures between the local fishermen and foreign processors spiked until the fishery became more Americanized and nudged the foreign companies out of the picture until it was domestically run by the year 1990.

    1. Hi Rheannon!

      I totally agree with what you said about the catch being recorded. I find it kinda crazy that it was being done like that for such a long amount of time.

      Great post!

    2. That was a good bit of information you put in there about the fish not being recorded properly I totally forgot about that. Plus the way you broke down the chart into a simplistic point of view was awesome. Good read overall.

    3. Hi Rheannon,
      I like how you mention about the underreported catches and how that might not have been sustainable it it went on any longer. I didn’t consider this though it makes sense in the long run considering that no one was actually keeping track of the health of stocks.

  14. The domestic market of Pollock during the 1970s and most of the 1980s was virtually nonexistent. However, groundwater was being harvested by foreign fleets by the boatloads outside of the US fishery Conservation Zone (FCZ). In the book, Bailey describes the foreign practices as “slash and burn,” highlighting the destructive nature. When the red king crab fishery began to see the fishery’s collapse, it caused fishers to start looking elsewhere. The groundfish fishery looked to be a viable option for many boats to begin fishing, while others began to look at other fisheries. The problem was there was fierce competition from foreign fleets for the resources. Many risk-takers advocated for American fisheries to extend the FCZ out to 200 miles. The benefits outweighed the risk, and the United States adopted the Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA). The pollock fishery came into the crosshairs of a few prominent investors that researched the fishery’s viability and the demand for pollock by foreign markets. The Japanese market became the primary target and ended with them agreeing to buy 200 tons. The benefit to the FCMA was the “Americanization” of the U.S pollock industry, placing priority on American fisheries and fish processors. One of the problems that came from FCMA is that there weren’t enough U.S. fishing vessels to haul the amount of groundfish and pollock to processors. It became clear that foreign vessels were needed to help, and that is when joint ventures began. The American policies placed a higher cost on our fishing companies than foreign vessels able to pay less. Fees on foreign vessels eventually cause them to fish elsewhere. The U.S. vessels at the same time built up their capacity causing an increase in American pollock harvest.

    1. Branddon,
      You did a great job explaining the story of the Fishery Conservation and Management Act, in a way that most could understand easily. I agree that Bailey comparing harvesting practices to slash and burning in agriculture does paint an image of the destruction and damage occurring. “Americanization” was a great word choice for how the United states started prioritizing their fisherman before foreigners got to possess quota. I hadn’t realized that joint revenue was a result of foreign vessels help being needed to support volumes of fish.


  15. A joint venture fishery is the combination of two fisheries that are typically from different countries that share capital. The two will often agree on trades among themselves from fishing vessels to services. Foreign fishermen were paying to fish in American waters with a vessel fee, pound/ caught fee, surcharge fee, and an observer fee. The Federal Conservation and Management Act of 1976 which became effective March 1, 1977. It ensured that there was a 200-mile conservation area off the coast of North America where fishing vessels from other countries were not able to fish within that region. After this became effective there were virtually no foreign fishermen fishing within the 200-mile area. This opened up the opportunity for more joint ventures so Americans could still fish in that area but also remain in the alliance with the foreign fishing industry. The foreign fishing industries were still able to process a majority of the American’s catch. Due to this situation, it became complicated and expensive to have foreign fishermen process the fish. Americanization was pushing for America to be able to process its own catch because of the economic value of that whole process. The chart shows that the foreign involvement in the pollock industry decreased rapidly as Americanization became a large part of the business as the domestic line increases largely in comparison. The joint venture has a spike right as the foreign and domestic lines cross.
    *I tried posting this yesterday but the website wouldn’t let me log in!

    1. I like that you explained what a joint venture fishery was! I also like that you mentioned it being complicated and expensive. That was something I was thinking about as I read about this. I think the regulations made it simpler and easier for local fishermen to make a profit and was definitely the right choice to make. We definitely have reaped the benefits from it!

  16. Before the year 1976, there were no regulations on who exactly could fish for Alaskan pollock so fishermen from other countries would come to fish for them. After the Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976, the United States expanded the fishing boundary of the United States to 200 miles out at sea. Foreign fishing within this boundary was still allowed but, the American quota was to be first priority. So after this act was passed and 1976 foreign fishing declined in the Bering Sea and joint venture fisheries began to rise. One of the big reasons that these joint venture fisheries started working so well was because of the price of processing the pollock in the United States. Processing these fish in the United States was quite expensive and so it was much more cost-effective for the American fisheries to ship the fish overseas to be processed because it was much cheaper there. Around 1988 however, joint venture fisheries began to decline. The reason for this was the tariffs for overseas were becoming more and more expensive. And because of this, by the early 90s most joint venture fisheries had become pretty much non existence.

  17. In 1976 was the beginning of people using pollack for fake carb meat and the fish used in fish sticks. With new technology to make frozen food also came the new need for innovative fishing techniques and the catching of fish not normally used in food. Pollack became the biggest fishery in the world, and with that increase in popularity came the need for bigger fisheries. Which is where joint fisheries comes in, a joint fishery is when a larger fishery buys a smaller fishery and they come together to create an even larger fishery and become a power group. Pollack became this popular because their meat is pure white making it perfect for fake crab meat and for kids food, the taste is also pretty good.

  18. In 1976, The Fisheries Conservation and Management Act was implemented. Too little too late? The Fisheries Conservation Zone was established out to 200 miles separating the U.S. and international waters. Prior to 76′, there was no government policy and regulation that standardized the harvest of species. However, in 1955, there was an International Technical Conference on the Conservation of the Living Resources of the Sea that was implemented and enacted only when scientific data provided evidence of overfishing. An issue with the FCMA was that it only regulated US waters and left the region outside the boundaries become a first serve basis. Foreign vessels seized the opportunity and had access to overwhelming tonnage of fish using radar, echosounders, sonar technology. This technology and other fishing advances contributed to the influx of catches in the 80s. Fishing fleets from around the globe increased the pressure in the Bering Sea as the US law did not have accountability of their vessels. The joint venture was when US ships would caught and deliver their product to foreign processors at sea. Included number of vessels processing the fish, number of days vessels were present on fishing grounds, foreign estimate of catch, and official “blended estimate” of the catch. The Gulf of Alaska and Washington, Oregon, and California regions provided information that summed the week, nation, area, vessel, company, and species from 1977-1990. An understanding between nations and having an accord on the management of the fishery operations.

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