Homework due Thursday October 22

Before class on Thursday complete the following:

  1. Watch the documentary ‘Alaska Gold’about the proposed Pebble Mine in Bristol BayLetters: Alaska Gold, over crowded salmon waters
  2. Watch my friend Jason Ching’s
    1. Pick 10 of the following Questions and turn in as a reply to this post:
      1. Briefly summarize the crux of the ecological issue regarding the proposed Pebble Mine in Bristol Bay

       

      1. From Alaska Gold and Jason Ching’s Above Iliamna, what words might you use to describe the biological and physical setting in Bristol Bay? Do any of these words create challenges when considering the proposed Pebble Mine?

       

       

      1. What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientist and environmental organizations?

       

       

      1. What aspects of the proposed specific location of the mine may reduce the potential impact and what may aggravate the effects?

       

       

      1. Which biological traits of sockeye salmon may make them resilient to these changes and which may make them sensitive?

       

      1. Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations

       

       

      1. Who owns the land proposed to be mined?

       

      1. Who is the Pebble Partnership?

       

       

      1. What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?

       

      1. What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?

       

       

      1. How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the foot print of the mine remain?

       

       

      1. Briefly describe the concerns by local residents that rely on subsistence resources and whether there is 100% agreement or debate? What things did you hear from the two ‘sides’ of the debate?

       

       

      1. According to McEvoy, the Pebble Mine project is likely or unlikely to be sustainable? What about according to Solow?

       

       

      1. Over 50% of the returning salmon to Bristol Bay are sustainably caught each year. Describe the logic of intentionally harvesting a population at about 50% of its unfished state in order to maximize catch into the future.

       

      1. If a person is opposed to the Pebble Mine and drives a hybrid vehicle (or anything that uses copper) does it make them a hypocrite? Why or why not?

       

       

      1. Describe how the Environmental Protection Agency became involved, what they found in their watershed assessment, and the response by different communities

       

      1. Under what federal Act would the EPA potential block construction of Pebble Mine?

       

31 thoughts on “Homework due Thursday October 22”

  1. Pick 10 of the following Questions and turn in as a reply to this post:
    Briefly summarize the crux of the ecological issue regarding the proposed Pebble Mine in Bristol Bay

    1. From Alaska Gold and Jason Ching’s Above Iliamna, what words might you use to describe the biological and physical setting in Bristol Bay? Do any of these words create challenges when considering the proposed Pebble Mine?

    The biological and physical setting that is viewed in Alaska Gold and Above Iliamna is best described by me as “lush, diverse, and untouched.” I think all of the adjectives I could think of to describe Bristol Bay stem from one thing: “Untouched.” When we look at areas in the lower 48 who once had grand salmon runs, which have now been destroyed by human interference, we can paint a small picture of what the future for Bristol Bay would be like in the face of the proposed Pebble Mine. There is a cause and effect to every large mine. No mine will stay safe *forever.* It’s not if it will fail, it is when it will fail. The moment we begin building this mine, the moment Bristol Bay will no longer be “untouched” and will lose a lot of its describing adjectives over time.

    2. Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations

    Bristol Bay has the largest sockeye run in the world. It also is unmatched in its productivity. This area is home not only to Sockeye, but also Chinook, Pink, Coho, and Chum. 46% of our wild harvested sockeye comes from Bristol Bay watersheds. That is absolutely unobtainable in other watersheds in America.

    3. Who owns the land proposed to be mined?

    The state of Alaska currently owns the land where the proposed Pebble Mine would be placed.

    4. Who is the Pebble Partnership?

    The Pebble Partnership was bought out by Northern Dynasty Partnership, which is a Canadian company responsible for the upbringing of the proposed Pebble Mine after discovery of the amount of Copper available in Bristol Bay. They are responsible for many other successful mining projects.

    5. What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?

    The Pebble Mine would sit at the headwaters of two of Bristol Bay’s most producing salmon systems. The tiny streams branching off of the rivers are nursery areas for young salmon. The young salmon run upstream in these streams to hide from predators and survive until they can go into the big rivers with larger salmon. If we destroyed these areas, the salmon would have an unproductive cycle with too many young fish dying off to sustain a population.

    6. What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?

    To protect a stream in Alaska, you must first prove there are salmon in the stream. This is not the case for most of the lower 48.

    7. How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the foot print of the mine remain?

    The Pebble Partnership proposed that the mine would be active for approximately 20 years, although the mine would produce for well over 100 years. With new information, we have learned that that is a lie. Pebble Mine’s CEO, who recently resigned this month, was caught exposing their plan for a 160 year mining plan. The footprint of this mine is everlasting. Once it is built, the land cannot recover and the mining damage cannot be undone.

    8. Briefly describe the concerns by local residents that rely on subsistence resources and whether there is 100% agreement or debate? What things did you hear from the two ‘sides’ of the debate?

    The two sides of the debate sit on the environmental side and the economical side. On the environmental side, residents believe that the salmon deserve a safe place to continue to thrive. With the thriving salmon, the residents will continue to thrive and live as they always have for generations to come. I firmly believe the people sitting on the economical side are putting the money in their pockets above environmental impacts. Though, it is hard to blame people who can struggle year to year to make ends meet in such a rural place. I do believe the Pebble Mine is taking advantage of those who struggle to make them believe they’re doing them a favor financially. The environmental effects after the mine is finished will be so detrimental to their future generations.

    9. Over 50% of the returning salmon to Bristol Bay are sustainably caught each year. Describe the logic of intentionally harvesting a population at about 50% of its unfished state in order to maximize catch into the future.

    We want to have a fishery that is able to produce maximum sustainable yield while also being fully exploited. Not under-exploited, not over-exploited. We can determine the percentage of a population that can be taken for food without negatively interfering with a healthy, reproducing population. This keeps populations from getting too large and going over their carrying capacity and also makes the fishery more predictable in future years.

    10. If a person is opposed to the Pebble Mine and drives a hybrid vehicle (or anything that uses copper) does it make them a hypocrite? Why or why not?

    In my opinion, no not really. Our regular vehicles use 20-50lb of copper while a hybrid uses 80-180lb of copper. I don’t think our argument here is about who uses less, but moreso, “wrong place, wrong mine.” It can seem hypocritical, but I think Copper can safely be extracted in safer areas for a mine than Bristol Bay.

  2. Briefly summarize the crux of the ecological issue regarding the proposed Pebble Mine in Bristol Bay
    The Pebble Mine would yield billions of dollars in copper but would probably impact the most productive salmon rivers on the planet and all the people who live there and rely on salmon fishing.

    What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientists and environmental organizations?
    The Pebble Mine would be an open pit mine with a tailings dam next to it. It would cover 86 miles of land next to a brand new port and is a power project, which means lots of environmental regulations have to be met. The waters near the mine site could be corrupted very easily, as copper can poison the groundwater. Also, water would be pumped out from the streams, which would directly impact salmon.

    Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations
    Bristol Bay is one of the most productive salmon regions compared to other locations. It has a sustainable fishery and 9 major rivers that fill with salmon every year.

    Who is the Pebble Partnership?
    The Pebble Partnership is an international consortium that owns many acres of land and is hoping to begin the copper mine in Bristol Bay.

    What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?
    Tiny headwater streams would be impacted, which matters in the life history of salmon as spawning happens there and because young spawn go there to grow and hide from predators.

    Briefly describe the concerns by local residents that rely on subsistence resources and whether there is 100% agreement or debate? What things did you hear from the two ‘sides’ of the debate?
    Local residents think that a mine would disrupt the sustainability of the environment and cause a great reduction in their salmon. This would mean that people who rely on subsistence resources might lose those resources and not be able to live. However, there is major debate, and some people believe that the mine would have great economic benefits and help them pay to live.

    14. Over 50% of the returning salmon to Bristol Bay are sustainably caught each year. Describe the logic of intentionally harvesting a population at about 50% of its unfished state in order to maximize catch into the future.
    At 50% of its unfished state, the salmon population is growing the fastest so there is maximum surplus. This means that more fish can be caught, as long as its stocks are estimated every year so that more accurate numbers can be used rather than assuming it will stay the same over time.

    If a person is opposed to the Pebble Mine and drives a hybrid vehicle (or anything that uses copper) does it make them a hypocrite? Why or why not?
    I don’t think that makes them a hypocrite, as using copper and wanting to save a sustainable population of salmon are not mutually exclusive things. We may use copper, but we don’t necessarily want a lot more in the world today. More important things could be the fish populations that are being threatened.

    Describe how the Environmental Protection Agency became involved, what they found in their watershed assessment, and the response by different communities
    The native people asked the EPA to get involved, who researched and found the issues of tailings dam failures, acid mine drainage, and a major loss of fish habitat. The EPA can stop the mine due to these findings. A lot of people were angry, as the EPA were not officially called in and it was premature. Some people were very happy though, as the EPA found the necessary information to stop the mine to make a cleaner environment.

    Under what federal Act would the EPA potential block construction of Pebble Mine?
    The Clean Water Act would allow the EPA to block the Pebble Mine construction.

    1. Rachel, I agree that we can use copper and also disagree with the pebble mine. I think this is the way for the Pebble Partnership to guilt people into thinking the Pebble Mine isn’t as big of an issue as it truly is. “If ya use it everyday anyway, don’t ya need it?!” I think most people agree that we need copper, but we don’t want it being taken out of Bristol Bay.

  3. Briefly summarize the crux of the ecological issue regarding the proposed Pebble Mine in Bristol Bay.
    -The Pebble mine would generate millions of dollars in copper, but would not only impact the fish, but the people who rely on salmon fishing as a way of sustainability and culture in Bristol Bay.  

    Which biological traits of sockeye salmon may make them resilient to these changes and which may make them sensitive? 
    -What would make Sockeye salmon resilient to this? They are hybrids, they are easy to adapt to drastic changes. What would make them sensitive? That would probably be the sulfur from the mine, and cutting off salmon runs like not being able to return to spawning grounds. 

    Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations.
    – Bristol Bay is the largest sockeye salmon producing system in the world. It has produced up to 60 million fish returning from a single spawning event. You can catch 50% of them sustainably. It’s the last big salmon run left.  

    Who owns the land proposed to be mined? 
    -The State Of Alaska owns it.

    Who is the Pebble Partnership? 
    -The Pebble Partnership is owned by the Northern Dynasty. Established in 2007 to design, permit, construct and operate a modern, long-life mine. The partnership has overseen a robust program of mineral exploration, environmental and socioeconomic studies, engineering studies, along with governmental entities. 

    What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?
    -The streams that are a nursery habitat for baby Coho, and king salmon. They matter in the history of salmon, because they return to their spawning grounds and without doing this, the species is in danger.  It’s a part of the Life Cycle.

    What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development? 
    -What needs to be proven, is that the fish would be able to coexist next to sulfates from the said mine.  

      According to McEvoy, the Pebble Mine project is likely or unlikely to be sustainable? What about according to Solow? 
    -According to McEvoy, the Pebble Mine Project would not be sustainable, because you’re altering the life cycle of salmon. Solow would say anything was sustainable as long as you replace it with another species, if this one dies off.  

     If a person is opposed to the Pebble Mine and drives a hybrid vehicle (or anything that uses copper) does it make them a hypocrite? Why or why not? 
    -I wouldn’t say it makes them a hypocrite, when most people don’t even know that their vehicle uses copper. I think after they researched it more, then they would definitely feel like one. Normal vehicles contain anywhere from 20 -50 lbs. of copper, while a hybrid electric vehicle typically contains 85 pounds of copper; a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for instance a ” Prius ” uses about 130 pounds of copper; and battery electric vehicles use more than 180 pounds of copper. Not to mention buying new batteries and labor, you’re looking at about a grand for each. 

     Under what federal Act would the EPA potential block construction of Pebble Mine? 
    -To block the construction of the Pebble Mine, you would need The Clean Water Act.

    I also found the link below to be quite interesting, a friend of mine who is a long time commercial fisherman shared this with me.

    https://www.politico.com/news/2020/08/22/trump-set-to-block-alaska-pebble-mine-400206?fbclid=IwAR2-7Cv6l9eKa58cuQVkBc0FO2ZFJLJXVO-WOzJ8CF_rmgRINAS-SvQsJ1w

  4. 3. What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientist and environmental organizations?
    The specific form of mining and mineral being extracted (copper, molybdenum, and gold) that are cause for concern for some scientists and environmental organizations are the tailings dam that will rise 700 feet high and contain billions of tons of mining waste. As mining continues, more dams will be needed. The byproducts of the tailings are the greatest threat to the environment. In addition, the groundwaters near the mine run back and forth across the area designated for the mine and toxins and pollutants (such as sulfide minerals) will be collected. Not to mention, copper itself is highly toxic.

    5. Which biological traits of sockeye salmon may make them resilient to these changes and which may make them sensitive?
    The biological traits of sockeye salmon that may make them resilient are the oily substance that surrounds the eggs and the security of the streams from large predators. One trait that may make them sensitive is their sense of smell. Copper could potentially cause them to lose their sense of smell, disabling their ability to return to their breeding grounds.

    6. Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations
    The Bristol Bay wild salmon production, from two of its rivers, ranks as the highest in comparison to other locations all throughout the world. It is by far the most productive on the planet.

    7. Who owns the land proposed to be mined?
    The land proposed to be mined is owned by the state of Alaska.

    8. Who is the Pebble Partnership?
    The Pebble Partnership is a corporation, an international consortium, led by Anglo American, that has assembled mineral leases over 330 square miles of Alaska state land.

    9. What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?
    The types of streams that would be directly impacted by the mine activity are salmon spawning grounds. The life history of the salmon would be greatly impacted because these streams are spawning grounds for adult salmon and nursery habitats for juvenile salmon. The waters of these rivers are distilled, which is as pristine as water can get.

    10. What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?
    In Alaska, in order for streams to be proven to have the highest level of protection from development, they must demonstrate they occupy salmon. The Nature Conservancy stepped in and surveyed the river tributaries and documented 28 miles of salmon stream.

    11. How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the foot print of the mine remain?
    It is estimated that the mine will operate for roughly 100 years. Due to the level of production that would go into a proposal of this size, the footprint of the mine would remain forever.

    13. According to McEvoy, the Pebble Mine project is likely or unlikely to be sustainable? What about according to Solow?
    According to McEvoy, the Pebble Mine project is unlikely to be sustainable, because it would be extracting resources that are not replaceable and could potentially destroy the salmon industry in that area, and the destruction of any resource means it’s not sustainable. According to Solow the mine is likely sustainable, as well as ethical because it provides revenue for the current generation and produces a constant need for consumption. If the salmon resource were to disappear it would essentially be replaced by the extraction of copper and gold.

    15. If a person is opposed to the Pebble Mine and drives a hybrid vehicle (or anything that uses copper) does it make them a hypocrite? Why or why not?
    In many ways, yes, it makes a person opposed to the mine a hypocrite if their argument is simply to not extract copper from the ground. Copper is in almost everything, including a hybrid vehicle. It’s in just about every electronic gadget on the market. However, if the argument is that it will destroy the spawning grounds for salmon, then the argument is not one of hypocrisy.

    17. Under what federal Act would the EPA potential block construction of Pebble Mine?
    Under the Clean Water Act, the Environmental Protection Agency could potentially block construction of the Pebble Mine. It can determine if the mine discharge will affect fish spawning and breeding areas.

    1. Zosha, I agree with just about everything you answered with! I think the footprint from 1 year of mining is irreversible, let alone 100. In Bristol Bay, which is basically a wetland, it’s impossible to promise there would be no seeping of contaminants under the soil. An open pit mine in a wetland sounds like a disaster waiting to happen- or one that silently happens for decades.

  5. 1. Briefly summarize the crux of the ecological issue regarding the proposed Pebble Mine in Bristol Bay
    The mine is surrounded by streams and rivers that would ultimately have some level of impact by the mine. These waters are the largest salmon spawning area in the world.

    2. From Alaska Gold and Jason Ching’s Above Iliamna, what words might you use to describe the biological and physical setting in Bristol Bay? Do any of these words create challenges when considering the proposed Pebble Mine?
    Salmon, Bear, No people= AMAZING; I couldn’t imagine any amount of money that would be worth risking this ecosystem.

    3. What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientists and environmental organizations?
    The tailings would forever be collocated next to the mine, and when the tailings are mixed in an aqueous solution, they are acidic. The watershed is not just just one stream or river. It’s a web of streams, two nearby rivers, and a lake with waters interacting throughout.
    The EPA noted these as possible dangers, Major loss of fish habitat, high probability of a damaging pipeline break, failures of the tailing stand, and Acid mine drainage.

    6. Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations
    It is the #1 salmon fishery in the world!

    7. Who owns the land proposed to be mined?
    Alaska State lands
    8. Who is the Pebble Partnership?
    Anglo American an international consortium

    10. What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?
    The streams have to be proven to be salmon spawning and mating habitat.

    11. How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the foot print of the mine remain?
    It would be permitted for 100 yrs initially and possibly longer. It will forever become a foot print of the land.
    12. Briefly describe the concerns by local residents that rely on subsistence resources and whether there is 100% agreement or debate? What things did you hear from the two ‘sides’ of the debate?
    They have lived a mostly sustainable life and rely on the fish. The mixed cash economy has created a need for income. They need money to be able to become more prosperous.

    13. According to McEvoy, the Pebble Mine project is likely or unlikely to be sustainable? What about according to Solow?
    McEvoy would say that the mine is unsustainable, and the fish are; Solow would say the mines use would invest in the future and substitute salmon for other salmon.

    14. Over 50% of the returning salmon to Bristol Bay are sustainably caught each year. Describe the logic of intentionally harvesting a population at about 50% of its unfished state in order to maximize catch into the future.
    That is close to their Maximum Sustainable Yield and will provide the approximately same number of fish returning.

    15. If a person is opposed to the Pebble Mine and drives a hybrid vehicle (or anything that uses copper), does it make them a hypocrite? Why or why not?
    No, copper is being mined in other areas that don’t have the world’s largest salmon fishery. They probably are driving it because they care about the environment.

    16. Describe how the Environmental Protection Agency became involved, what they found in their watershed assessment, and the response by different communities
    They were petitioned to come and assess if the mine discharge would possibly pollute the water and harm the fish. The local villages and towns were happy to have the EPA in the town halls praising them for their actions. The cities (Anchorage) that held town halls for EPA condemned their actions, saying it will prevent investors from looking at Alaska.
    17. Under what federal Act would the EPA potential block construction of Pebble Mine?
    Clean Water ACT

  6. 1. What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientist and environmental organizations?
    The type of mining that would be used to extract the copper from the earth is sulfide open pit mining. This type of mining causes concern because of the large amount of waste left behind. It is estimated that Pebble Mine could leave 10 billion tons of waste which would need to be stored behind large dam like structures. The concern is that over time this waste which contains toxic chemicals such as lead, cadmium, zinc and arsenic could potentially leach into nearby streams and Lake Iliamna. Copper is toxic in high concentrations however, the larger concern is that it can damage a fish sense of smell at lower levels. Fish use their sense of smell to locate predators and to return home to spawn. Copper would need to be completely removed from any mine water before it was discharged back into the watershed.

    2. Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations.
    It is the largest sockets salmon producing system in the world with up to 60 million fish returning in a single spawning event.
      
    3. Who owns the land proposed to be mined?
    The State of Alaska.
     
    4. Who is the Pebble Partnership?
    It is a international consortium led by Anglo-American.
     
    5. What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?
     Small tributaries off of the main stems and they are important to the life history of salmon because they are nursery habitat for small salmon.

    6. What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?
     That a stream has salmon in it.

    7. How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the foot print of the mine remain?
     100-200 years and its footprint would remain forever, requiring perpetual remediation.

    8. Briefly describe the concerns by local residents that rely on subsistence resources and whether there is 100% agreement or debate? What things did you hear from the two ‘sides’ of the debate?
     That is Pebble Mine gets permitted it would ruin the clean pristine environment that is required for sustainment living. The influx of outsiders and their impact on substance living would make it very hard for those living on subsistence. There is not 100% agreement, it has divided the region with the other side in favor of the mine for the economic benefits it could bring to the area.
     
    9. If a person is opposed to the Pebble Mine and drives a hybrid vehicle (or anything that uses copper) does it make them a hypocrite? Why or why not?
     I would say no, it is more ignorance. As the video pointed out, Copper is a”stealth” metal. People don’t know what materials are in the goods they buy, where these materials (metals specifically) come from, how they are made or extracted from the earth, and the environmental/social consequences. It is an unspoken side effect of being “green”. Most people think hybrids are “good” for the environment when in reality it is about trade offs.

    10. Under what federal Act would the EPA potential block construction of Pebble Mine?
    The Clean Water Act.

  7. Briefly summarize the crux of the ecological issue regarding the proposed Pebble Mine in Bristol Bay
    Bristol Bay is home to the largest sockeye salmon production in the world, and millions of salmon return there to spawn every year. However, it has also been found that it is home to one of largest copper deposits in the world. The proposed mine would dewater some streams as well as contaminate other water that flows between the streams, meaning it’s very vulnerable to toxins. This is especially dangerous as the smaller streams are home to newly hatched salmon that are still growing and getting strong enough to leave.

    What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific minerals being extracted is cause for concern for some scientists. and environmental organizations?
    The specific form of mining that Pebble would use creates a very large amount of waste, and that waste would take a lot of space in the environment and has possible contaminants in it. The minerals being extracted (sulfide minerals), when exposed to oxygen and water breaks down and turns into sulfuric acid. The water now has acid and metals in solution in it, and there is concern that that contaminated water can then spread to nearby rivers and Lake Iliamna.

    Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations
    Bristol Bay has the largest sockeye salmon production in the world. It’s the last of its kind.

    What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?
    The small streams that are more inland will be most impacted by mine activity, and these small streams are home to the newly hatched salmon fry. Young salmon live in these streams when they are too small to safely interact with the rest of the environment and spend time there to grow and get strong before they can leave and eventually make their way to the ocean.

    What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?
    It must be proven that there are salmon in the stream.

    How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the foot print of the mine remain?
    It is estimated that it would operate for 100 years. The footprint of the mine would remain forever, as it is estimated that it would 10 billion tons of waste that would need to be stored and monitored forever. The water that will inevitably build up in the pit once the mine closes will also need to be monitored forever as it will be too acidic to be allowed to spread to nearby bodies of water.

    Briefly describe the concerns by local residents that rely on subsistence resources and whether there is 100% agreement or debate? What things did you hear from the two ‘sides’ of the debate?
    There is a lot of debate on the impacts of the mine and whether or not it should be supported. Many people are concerned that it would take away their way of life and limit their ability to continue subsistence hunting and fishing. Those that support the mine recognize that they live in a cash economy and the mine would provide an opportunity for employment.

    If a person is opposed to the Pebble Mine and drives a hybrid vehicle (or anything that uses copper) does it make them a hypocrite? Why or why not?
    I don’t think it makes them a hypocrite because copper comes from all over the world, not just the Pebble Mine. The Pebble Mine is in a specific spot that is incredibly important to the life cycle of sockeye salmon and there is nothing like it in any other place in the world. While it is true that the deposit found in Bristol Bay is also incredibly large and special, it is not the only one of its kind. There are many copper mines all over the world, but there aren’t many Bristol Bays, so no I don’t think that makes them a hypocrite.

    Describe how the Environmental Protection Agency became involved, what they found in their watershed assessment, and the response by different communities
    Local opponents of the mine (native tribes and local fishermen) reached out to the federal government and petitioned the EPA, who investigated whether mine discharge will affect salmon breeding areas. They found that a mine would cause a major loss in fish habitat, possibility of pipeline breakage, and the danger of the acidic water produced by the mine. Many people in Anchorage were very angry with the assessment and thought that the EPA was interfering with the state’s own personal affairs. They thought that it was premature and unlawful. Alternatively, groups of native alaskans, fishermen, and environmentalists were happy with the EPA and supported their findings.

    Under what federal Act would the EPA potential block construction of Pebble Mine?
    The Clean Water Act.

    1. when you ware talking about if its hypocritical to own a hybrid car, we had almost the exact same idea! i don’t see why people would even consider someone who drives a hybrid car and doesn’t support the pebble mine a hypocrite. if anything its the opposite!

  8. Briefly summarize the crux of the ecological issue regarding the proposed Pebble Mine in Bristol Bay
    The salmon will lose their fresh water homes, which will then impact the fisheries.

    From Alaska Gold and Jason Ching’s Above Iliamna, what words might you use to describe the biological and physical setting in Bristol Bay? Do any of these words create challenges when considering the proposed Pebble Mine? The words that come to mind when thinking of Bristol bay, is resourceful and just this word alone makes it harder for politicians to resist the temptation of the Pebble mine proposal.

    What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientist and environmental organizations? It’s the way people want to mine it that causes concern, since it involves destroying the whole ecosystem for it to work.

    What aspects of the proposed specific location of the mine may reduce the potential impact and what may aggravate the effects? The specific location is very much hidden away from society, but for some fishermen it’s their favorite local spot to catch salmon. This also means this area is sensitive to change since it hasn’t been touched before.

    Which biological traits of sockeye salmon may make them resilient to these changes and which may make them sensitive? Salmon can live in the ocean as well so they can travel there, however they also spawn in freshwater so this also means they will have no spawning grounds if the proposal goes through.

    Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations. Bristol Bay is in the top 5, so it is an amazing place to catch salmon.

    Who owns the land proposed to be mined? The government

    Who is the Pebble Partnership?
    EPA

    What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon? The streams leading to the ocean and salmon live in both freshwater and salt water so they can’t go back and forth, this also means they won’t be able to spawn and die.

    What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development. Alaskans need to prove that the streams are overall useful for the salmon and they need to do a good job of keeping the stream healthy.

  9. 1.) Briefly summarize the crux of the ecological issue regarding the proposed Pebble Mine in Bristol Bay: The largest ecological issue with the proposition of the Pebble Mine is the cleanliness of the mine itself. The mine would be deeper than the nearest lake, and the possibility of water coming into contact with the mine and spreading underground to the nearby water sources is a real and scary possibility. Another factor of the cleanliness is the reservoir of the byproduct that would have to be monitored until the end of times to make sure that it doesn’t burst or leak, which would ruin everything in its path.

    2.) From Alaska Gold and Jason Ching’s Above Iliamna, what words might you use to describe the biological and physical setting in Bristol Bay? Do any of these words create challenges when considering the proposed Pebble Mine? Vast, spread out, and connected. The part about everything being connected is what does make the Pebble Mine such a hard mine to put in. The size of the mine means that even if they were to dig somewhat far away from any streams, there is a chance that it will still end up close to at least one when the mine is finally finished. The other part is the fact that almost al the water sources are connected underground so affecting even one stream would effect the majority or all of the other streams, rivers, and lakes.

    3.) What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientist and environmental organizations? The pit has to be very large and will ultimately end up under the water table. The largest concern is the byproduct waste made from the copper in the process where everything is turned into a liquid via chemicals. The byproduct is comparable to battery acid and will have to be monitored for the rest of time, as I mentioned earlier.

    5.) Which biological traits of sockeye salmon may make them resilient to these changes and which may make them sensitive? As far as biological traits that make the sockeye more resilient to these possible changes, I would have to say that not all salmon end up in their original birthing grounds so those genetic strains of salmon may live on. As far as what makes the salmon more sensitive to the changes is that less copper would mess with their sense of smell and if too much copper got into the stream they would die.

    6.) Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations: Bristol Bay is the largest wild salmon fisheries in the world.

    7.) Who owns the land proposed to be mined? At the start of the documentary, I thought it said that the Pebble Partnership owns the land, but later they said that the Natives in that region do, so the Native communities do.

    8.) Who is the Pebble Partnership? They are an international group that I gathered is primarily British, American, and Canadian. They said in the documentary several times that they’re American, but one of the protests had some hoodies with the Canadian flag on it, so I imagine that Canada plays a part in the Pebble Partnership.

    9.) What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon? The streams are primarily the small and shallow ones. They are important to the salmon because the smelt are too small to be in the larger rivers, so they move up river to these smaller streams where they have a chance to live and grow.

    11.) How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the foot print of the mine remain? The mine is supposed to be operated for an estimated 100 years, but the byproducts will be around probably until the sun decides to blow up or humans find something to neutralize it, whatever happens first.

    15.) If a person is opposed to the Pebble Mine and drives a hybrid vehicle (or anything that uses copper) does it make them a hypocrite? Why or why not? I wouldn’t say that it makes them a hypocrite per se, but it can put them on the path to being one. In the film, it was talked about how much actually takes copper and also how there were still plenty of copper mines with good copper output still being mined. It also said that hybrids have more copper than most cars, and I would assume that all-electric vehicles are using even more than hybrids. So people who get an electric or hybrid car are buying one, assumed new, which helps boost numbers of sold cars like that. The companies decide to make more, which means more copper. Eventually, the copper mines currently producing are out of copper and new mines need to be started, and the Pebble Mine is looked at, being the largest deposit of copper in North America. This is 100% hypothetical, but it is how something that isn’t hypocritical could lead to it.

  10. What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientist and environmental organizations? The pebble mine wants to use explosives/ have an open pit mine. There is so much waste involved in this form of mining. The waste can break down into acid and different metals and leak into the rivers and lake Iliamna. Copper is toxic to the fish and not as visible to them so they can avoid it. Salmon use their sense of smell to return to the stream they spawned in and the contamination of copper can hinder their sense of direction and possibly kill them.

    Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations.
    Bristol Bay’s “gold” also includes the salmon. Just like in Newfoundland how Cod is “fish,” well salmon in Bristol Bay is “fish” to us. “Bristol Bay’s backbone IS salmon.”

    Who is the Pebble Partnership?
    An international contortion led by Americans that had pebble leases all of Alaska. It also involves a group of geologists and mining companies (including people from public affairs) that have found the ultimate “jackpot” of copper in Bristol Bay.

    What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?
    The types of streams that will be impacted by the mine activity would be the smaller streams that are home to many different habitats specifically the salmon that are born there and return for spawning.

    What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?
    You have to show that there are salmon actually in the stream before it can be protected.

    How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the footprint of the mine remain?
    Estimated about 100 years of mining, and the footprint of the mine will remain for 100 years as well.

    Briefly describe the concerns by local residents that rely on subsistence resources and whether there is 100% agreement or debate? What things did you hear from the two ‘sides’ of the debate? Most people who don’t have jobs rely on the land. They are harvesting year-round whether its salmon, berries, big or small game, the residents know that the pebble mine will ruin their entire life. There are also other sources of copper/gold in the US and other nations.

    Others are for the mine because of economic activity. It will bring jobs, and more opportunities in the villages. They believe they need more than salmon; they need money and jobs to pay for their new way of life.

    If a person is opposed to the Pebble Mine and drives a hybrid vehicle (or anything that uses copper) does it make them a hypocrite? Why or why not? No because there are other ways to get copper without completely destroying an environment. We can find other ways of transportation as well.

    Describe how the Environmental Protection Agency became involved, what they found in their watershed assessment, and the response by different communities? Clean Water Act: determine whether mine discharge will affect salmon habitat and spawning areas. The consequences are too high when it comes to the pebble mine and the EPA discovered that an easy waste spilling or an earthquake or any kind of disruption will completely destroy the environment the fish live in.

    Under what federal Act would the EPA potential block construction of Pebble Mine?
    Clean Water Act

  11. 3. What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientists and environmental organizations?
    The copper being mined has the potential to leak into nearby streams, rivers, or lakes. As one of the biologists said copper in the water alters the salmon’s sense of smell and ability to return to their home river to spawn. There is also the risk of acidic mine water runoff that can settle into the groundwater that interacts with other freshwater streams that are the spawning areas for many salmon near the site of the potential mine.

    6. Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations
    Bristol Bay is the largest wild Pacific Salmon run in the world. As they say in the “Red Gold” video it’s such a unique ecosystem that has been sustainable for a very long time and has the potential to continue being sustainable for many years to come. Roughly 60 million salmon return to their home stream or river to spawn.

    7. Who owns the land proposed to be mined?
    The state of Alaska currently owns the land along the west coast where the mine is set to be built.

    8. Who is the Pebble Partnership?
    The Pebble Partnership is a group of people (Northern Dynasty) who are wanting to build the copper/ gold mine in Bristol Bay.

    9. What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?
    Streams that are the spawning grounds for the Bristol Bay salmon would be impacted by the mining runoff. These streams also house the new generations so they need to be protected to keep the salmon species growing and returning in healthy numbers.

    10. What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?
    In order to protect streams from future development, they need to be proven salmon habitat for the young generations that will provide many Alaskans with food or a source of income in the future.

    11. How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the footprint of the mine remain?
    The copper mine is estimated to be “sustainable” for a hundred years but the footprint of it would last for potentially ten thousand years. As the years go by rain will collect in the open pit and surrounding structures that can leak residual toxins into other streams and rivers harming the habitat.

    12. Briefly describe the concerns by local residents that rely on subsistence resources and whether there is 100% agreement or debate? What things did you hear from the two ‘sides’ of the debate?
    The village residents that rely on subsistence fishing are worried that the Pebble Mine would impact and disrupt the life cycle of the salmon in that area by reducing the amount of salmon that would spawn and potentially kill off the current generations. Subsistence fishing is also a part of the culture in the villages and has many years of traditional attributes that make the people who they are and identify as. There are also people in the villages who are pro Pebble Mine because they think it would help the economy and provide a lot of jobs to the people in the surrounding area. While that would be nice there is no guarantee that the jobs at the mine would be given to the Alaskan Natives in the villages.

    16. Describe how the Environmental Protection Agency became involved, what they found in their watershed assessment, and the response by different communities
    The EPA was brought in by the local communities in the Bristol Bay area. A lot of the villages there signed a petition to get outside help with fighting the Pebble Mine. The EPA found that there would be a significant amount of risks involved with the building and operating of the mine in Bristol Bay. When Anchorage held a conference there were a lot of people that showed up and about half were against the EPA being involved in this decision. The villages that were able to speak their mind were definitely for the EPA being involved because it helped prove their case.

    17. Under what federal Act would the EPA potential block construction of Pebble Mine?
    The clean water act which states that the water runoff needs to meet specific requirements to be discharged into U.S. waters. Under this act, the EPA can stop the Pebble Mine from being built.

  12. The issue with Pebble Mine is that it will affect the way of life of some many organisms. Having a high risk of contaminating the environment that surrounds them.

    Serene would be the word I would use because the ecosystem has been there for years and untainted by human impact. The challenge that Pebble Mine will face would have to be finding out a way from destroying the natural way of life that has been there before they found the minerals

    Bristol Bay ranks as the biggest salmon fisheries in the world because of their massive production in sockeye salmon. The fisheries in Bristol Bay can catch half of the salmon sustainably.

    The state of Alaska owns the mine

    The smaller streams would have a negative impact from the mine because juvenile salmon would live there until they become big enough to compete in a bigger environment.

    That Pebble Mine coexist with the salmon that inhabit that area and not destroy their habitat or any habitat that is surrounding the mine

    The mine would be able to bring in jobs and revenue to pay bills and buy gas that subsistence cannot bring in alone. While the opposing people find that the mine would not only cause harm to the fish that spawn that but as well as their way of life that has been with them for generations.

    McEvoy would 100% be opposed to the Pebble Mine project because it does that fall in line with his idea of sustainability, since the environment is being affected with the possible project. While Solow would be for it since the mine has minerals that directly correlates with our daily lives there would be no hesitation in his voice to support the project.

    That does not make the person a hypocrite because the person driving a hybrid vehicle had the intentions of trying to make the environment better.

    The EPA became involved when Alaskan Natives and local fishermen petitioned for the federal government to get involved to help them combat the Pebble Mine project. What the EPA found in their studies were that the possibilities of pipeline breaks, loss in fish habitat, possible tailings dam failures, and acid mine drainage.

  13. 1.Briefly summarize the crux of the ecological issue regarding the proposed Pebble Mine in Bristol Bay.

    The proposed pebble mine would destroy many of the streams that sockeye salmon need to spawn. It may also leech toxic mine waste into the water supply

    2. From Alaska Gold and Jason Ching’s Above Iliamna, what words might you use to describe the biological and physical setting in Bristol Bay? Do any of these words create challenges when considering the proposed Pebble Mine?

    Pristine, undisturbed, unique, and beautiful are all words that could be used to describe Bristol bay. All of these words create challenges when considering pebble mine because they would no longer apply. If a large mine is placed in an area it is no longer pristine, undisturbed wilderness.

    3.What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientist and environmental organizations?

    Copper mines, like pebble, are open pit mines that can be miles wide. A mile wide hole in the ground will destroy large amounts of salmon habitat. On top of this the mining waste or “tailings” that are produced from copper mining are especially toxic compared to other mining waste. The main concern is that these tailings would leach into the groundwater and river system of the area. Copper also effects the sense of smell that salmon use to find their home streams.

    4.What aspects of the proposed specific location of the mine may reduce the potential impact and what may aggravate the effects?

    The proposed mines impacts may be aggravated by the location of Bristol Bay on the ring of fire. Any sort of tailings pond will need to be able to withstand the highest intensity earthquakes experienced in the region. The are is also a giant wetland that receives heavy rains, which could aggravate the seepage of toxic waste into the water.

    5.Which biological traits of sockeye salmon may make them resilient to these changes and which may make them sensitive?

    Sockeye salmon use a sophisticated sense of smell to navigate the water and any small change in the chemical makeup of the watershed could have huge negative effects on them.

    6.Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations

    Bristol Bay contains the largest wild salmon run in the world. It is entirely unique, it is the largest salmon producing ecosystem in the world.

    7.Who owns the land proposed to be mined?

    The state of Alaska

    8.Who is the Pebble Partnership?

    An international consortium of mining companies that want to develop the pebble mine. It is led by the ANglo-American mining company.

    9.What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?

    The most effected streams would be natal streams. These are the small streams that young salmon swim into right after hatching to hide from predators until they are large enough to live in large streams and rivers. They are an essential part of the salmon life cycle.

    10.What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?

    In Alaska it needs to be proven that streams have salmon actively living and spawning in them to receive the highest level of protection.

  14. 4. What aspects of the proposed specific location of the mine may reduce the potential impact and what may aggravate the effects?
    100 air miles and 230 river miles from Bristol Bay; nearest village 17-18miles
    Footprint is on 0.013% of the Bristol Bay area, three tributaries within the location of the deposit. Located on state of Alaska land open for development
    Project plan eliminates all mine facilities from the Upper Talarik
    Cyanide will not be used. Habitat channels have been blocked until the management establish ways to mitigate these issues and restore access.

    6. Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations
    The watershed supports the largest sockeye run in the world. It produces about 46% of the wold’s wild sockeye harvest. The fishery is valued at about $1.5 billion and provides over 20,000 jobs nationally.

    7. Who owns the land proposed to be mined?
    The land is owned by the state.

    8. Who is the Pebble Partnership?
    CEO; Tom Collier(former Dept of Interior Chief of Staff in Clinton administration). Based in Anchorage,AK. They oversee activities in the areas of mineral exploration, environment/socioeconomic studies, stakeholder relations and public and corporate affairs. The partnership is owned by Northern Dynasty Minerals(Ronald Thiessen, President, CEO): Their vision is to build and operate a modern mine that can co-exists with healthy fish and wildlife populations and traditional ways of life in southwest AK.

    9. What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?
    There are eight watersheds in the Bristol Bay region. Three tributaries are near the Pebble. The North and South Fork Koktuli, and Upper Talarik Creek. Bristol Bay is home to all five species of Alaska salmon. The tributaries within the region has the potential of becoming impacted. There is also over 3000 acres of wetands that face risk.

    10. What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?
    There needs to be proof of salmon within that watershed source.

    11. How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the foot print of the mine remain?
    The project will mine approximately 1.5 billion tons of mineralized material
    20yr lifespan for the mine according to their website.

    13. According to McEvoy, the Pebble Mine project is likely or unlikely to be sustainable? What about according to Solow?
    McEvoy may look at this project and see the possible negative outcomes outweighs the positives. The regulations would need to be seamless allowing no wiggle room for the operations to exploit the regs from any angle. Ensure that fisheries stay healthy and the watersheds not connected remain that way. Nature would show the impacts and eventually may lead to a possible tipping point of no recovery of the habitat. Solow could see the Reds from the economic standpoint. They bring billions of revenues, create jobs, sport fishing, and while that all continues, he’d shift focus and invest in similar but different resource.

    15. If a person is opposed to the Pebble Mine and drives a hybrid vehicle (or anything that uses copper) does it make them a hypocrite? Why or why not?
    Do you like electricity in your home? Do you have a smart phone? Copper is everywhere and it plays a significant role in our everyday lives. So no, it does not make them a hypocrite. In the end, it is up to the individual and their own personal beliefs. It is up to them to do their own research and decide for themselves. There are other copper resources on this planet that have been tapped into and are fully operational. It does offer thousands of employment opportunities for the people, but at what discontinue the operation.

  15. 1. Briefly summarize the crux of the ecological issue regarding the proposed Pebble Mine in Bristol Bay.
    The crux of the ecological issue, is that the Pebble Mine in Bristol Bay would permanently change how the salmon can interact with their ecosystem. It would affect the salmon which means it affects all animals up the food chain. It would cause a huge upheaval in how that ecosystem, food chain, and whole way of nature is. It could poison all fish; it could throw off the smell of the waters making it more difficult for the fish to return. It could shake the foundation of the wilderness there.

    2. From Alaska Gold and Jason Ching’s Above Iliamna, what words might you use to describe the biological and physical setting in Bristol Bay? Do any of these words create challenges when considering the proposed Pebble Mine?
    Symbiotic, beautiful, wild, sustainable, natural. The circle of life song in The Lion King. The pebble mine would ruin the beautiful, wild, and natural part. It’s hard to feel like something is an amazing wilderness with inherent beauty from Mother Nature with a giant hole and machinery going through it, scaring the wildlife and risking the fish. It also risks the sustainability of the whole thing, if the fish can’t come back to the areas they are mining, they can spawn properly and that throws off EVERYTHING.

    3. What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientist and environmental organizations?
    The billions of tons of waste that is “like battery acid” that has to be maintained forever otherwise it will kill everything. The explosions and therefore destruction of all of the little streams, and rivers that baby salmon hide in. Potential for the copper to leak into the water, which messes with the fish’s sense of smell.

    5. Which biological traits of sockeye salmon may make them resilient to these changes and which may make them sensitive?
    Biological traits that make them resilient could be that they already fight through basically everything to get back to reproduce, so that innate drive may be useful. Their sense of smell however makes them extremely vulnerable. One little change in the copper level in the water won’t kill them but it will definitely throw them off, confusing them on where they need to go.

    6. Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations
    I thought it was the biggest. So #1. Please correct me if I’m wrong.

    9. What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?
    The little streams where the baby salmon go to hide, and grow. Would be the ones directly impacted. They matter in the life history of the salmon, because the babies go there to be safe from the bigger predators that want to eat them. Without those little streams, those babies won’t have a safe space to learn to catch food, or to grow, or to learn how to exist before growing into a teenage fish, that won’t get eaten on sight.

    10. What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?
    That there are salmon in the waters that will be affected by the mine.

    11. How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the foot print of the mine remain?
    It’s estimated that the mine would be operated for at least a hundred years. The foot print would last forever.

    13. According to McEvoy, the Pebble Mine project is likely or unlikely to be sustainable? What about according to Solow?
    According to McEvoy the project is unsustainable because it runs a sizeable risk of permanently damaging the salmon fishery. It would fundamentally change forever, could even be wiped out. According to Solow it would be sustainable because it would be a change that was necessary to invest in the future.

    15. If a person is opposed to the Pebble Mine and drives a hybrid vehicle (or anything that uses copper) does it make them a hypocrite? Why or why not?
    It doesn’t, because there isn’t a shortage of copper. If there was a shortage of copper, I believe it would be more debatable. As it is we only have one Alaska salmon fishery, and we have plenty of copper to use that doesn’t put the salmon at risk.

    17. Under what federal Act would the EPA potential block construction of Pebble Mine? The Clean Water Act would allow it.

  16. 2.From Alaska Gold and Jason Ching’s Above Iliamna, what words might you use to describe the biological and physical setting in Bristol Bay? Do any of these words create challenges when considering the proposed Pebble Mine?

    I would use the words pristine and magical. With the proposed Pebble Mine these words would not be used the words would change to disgusting and hellish.

    3.What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientist and environmental organizations?

    This is an open pit mine, and this causes a lot of waste to be created. The mineral that is extracted this way is copper. What is most of concern in the waste is the chemicals. The chemicals used will create sulfuric acid which is like battery acid.

    4.What aspects of the proposed specific location of the mine may reduce the potential impact and what may aggravate the effects?

    The mine is in the worst possible place it is right next to two of the most productive salmon streams. If the mine happens it will damage these lands and if anything goes wrong there will be tremendous more damage.

    6.Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations

    Bristol Bay is one of the top salmon runs in the world. It supports the way of life for the people who benefit from this wonderful natural resource.

    7.Who owns the land proposed to be mined?

    The land is owned by the state, but also the native people.

    9.What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?

    The streams that would be affected are the spawning streams. Without these there will be nowhere for the salmon to spawn

    10.What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?
    They need to prove salom are in the streams.

    11.How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the foot print of the mine remain?
    The mine will last for a 100 years but the impacts will be forever.

    12.Briefly describe the concerns by local residents that rely on subsistence resources and whether there is 100% agreement or debate? What things did you hear from the two ‘sides’ of the debate?

    The two sides are the substance and the money. The locals want the substance food but the other side wants the money and jobs.

    17.Under what federal Act would the EPA potential block construction of Pebble Mine?

    The Clean Water Act.

  17. Briefly summarize the crux of the ecological issue regarding the proposed Pebble Mine in Bristol Bay: The crux of the ecological issue is whether the Pebble Mine should go ahead in Bristol Bay to excavate this huge salmon habitat for profit and the benefit of the company or preserve the wildlife already present and leave $500 billion in profits.

    From Alaska Gold and Jason Ching’s Above Iliamna, what words might you use to describe the biological and physical setting in Bristol Bay? Do any of these words create challenges when considering the proposed Pebble Mine?: The words I would use to describe the documentary setting were pristine, natural, beautiful, plentiful. These create challenges to the proposed mine because of the tremendous value that this setting has to its surroundings and to Native peoples.

    What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientist and environmental organizations? The copper that would be mined from the Pebble Mine could be potentially harmful to the vitally important salmon source when it’s not even really needed in the world at the moment. The type of mining used in the mine, with a pit and damming the surrounding water sources could expose wildlife and the habitat to toxic materials.

    What aspects of the proposed specific location of the mine may reduce the potential impact and what may aggravate the effects?
    The proposed location of the mine as mostly underground could help wildlife survive but the damming of water sources with important species could aggravate the effects of the mine.

    Which biological traits of sockeye salmon may make them resilient to these changes and which may make them sensitive?
    The salmon spawning would be at risk and would be harmed in production numbers, their very sustainability.

    Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations
    Bristol Bay is a huge salmon run, one of the biggest in Alaska, which around 25 Native villages rely on for their way of life.

    What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?
    Streams and ponds, tributaries would be harmed in this mine and the salmon’s spawning would be interrupted.

    What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?
    It needs to be proven that there will be harmful effects to the salmon population production numbers.

    How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the foot print of the mine remain?
    In the proposal, it is suggested that the mine could function anywhere from 40 years to 160 years and would leave permanent changes to the environment.

    According to McEvoy, the Pebble Mine project is likely or unlikely to be sustainable? What about according to Solow?
    According to McEvoy, this would not be a sustainable decision when this could potentially remove the important species of sockeye salmon. To Solow, it’s hard to say whether he would consider the profits of the mine to be resources to help future generations or if he would consider destroying the fishery to be destroying all the resources important to the Natives.

  18. 3. What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientist and environmental organizations?
    • The fact that pebble mine would be an open pit means that the surrounding area would need to be drained to keep the pit from filling. This means that the salmon streams in that area would be completely drained and those population would die off. Another issue of the open pit construction and the processing of the ore is that a waste product of that is tailings that would need to be store in large revisors indefinitely. These tailing are equivalent to battery acid and would be very harmful should the dams ever collapse. The mineral that is the main focus of this mine is copper, when this is in the water it is known to interfere with salmon’s ability of smell. The salmon use smell to avoid predators and find their spawning grounds.

    6. Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations.
    • Bristol Bay is home of the largest wild sockeye salmon run in the world where 50% of the population can be fished sustainably.

    7. Who owns the land proposed to be mined?
    • The State of Alaska.

    8. Who is the Pebble Partnership?
    • When the documentary was made 50% of the partnership was owned by Anglo American now the partnership is wholly owned by Northern Dynasty Minerals, Ltd.

    9. What types of streams would be directly impacted by the mine activity and why do they matter in the life history of salmon?
    • The headwater of two major spawning rivers are close to the proposed mining site. The streams that would be directly affected are ones that are used as safe havens for young salmon just after hatching. These streams serve as an area where the salmon can learn to survive by swimming against the current and dealing with the small predators in that area. The ground water that is the source of these streams is even more so at risk because it runs underneath the proposed area.

    10. What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?
    • For a stream to be protected it must be proven that salmon are present there.

    11. How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the foot print of the mine remain?
    • The proposal for the mine is for 20 years however leaked recordings suggest that it could go for 160 years or more. The footprint of the mine would remain indefinitely and would have to be continuously monitored.

    15. If a person is opposed to the Pebble Mine and drives a hybrid vehicle (or anything that uses copper) does it make them a hypocrite? Why or why not?
    • No, there are many other mines that are producing copper in areas that have less environmental risks. Pebble mine is not needed, there is no shortage of copper. The use of copper products does not signify that the individual relies on it by choice, it is simply that the item was made with it by the producers. The only case where this would be considered a hypocrisy is during a shortage of copper leading to a need for the mine. If the individual was unwilling for his conveniences (phone, car, etc.) to be taken apart to be used in more important goods (medical equipment), then that individual would be a hypocrite.

    16. Describe how the Environmental Protection Agency became involved, what they found in their watershed assessment, and the response by different communities.
    • The EPA became involved because they were petitioned to take action by the local communities would be affected. They found that the mine would pose severe risks to salmon spawning areas. People in Anchorage were upset at the EPA for taking action and believed that the EPA had overstepped its bounds; while people in Dillingham thanked the EPA for coming and protecting their salmon.

    17. Under what federal Act would the EPA potential block construction of Pebble Mine?
    • Under the Clean Water Act the EPA can block the construction of the mine. As of August this year (2020), the mine failed to pass inspection by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and violated this act.

  19. 1. The biggest issue would be the effect of the mine on the environment. The buildup of the liquid left over after the processing of the metals is dangerous and builds up over time in mass quantities.

    2. Vibrant, Abundance, and Beauty, and yes. Most of the things I listed would be drastically reduced or wiped out if the mine was established.

    5. The resilient part of the sockeye salmon will be their muscly form allowing them to continue to swim up the creeks even if they become smaller. And a big factor that would make the salmon sensitive is that their senses of smell would become greatly diminished.

    6. Bristol Bay is the number one producer of wild salmon in the world. We can fish for them and catch up to 50 percent of the spawning population and it is still sustainable.

    7. The state of Alaska owns the land.

    8. A very large multinational mining cooperation.

    9. All of the small creeks would be affected by the mine. These small creeks are where the salmon actually go to spawn so if those creeks get wiped out, that could mean the end of the salmon in this area.

    10. They need to prove that the creeks are where the salmon spawn making them the most important area to the salmon.

    11. The mine will operate for anywhere from 30 to 100 years. But the effects of the mine could last for tens of thousands of years.

    15. Yes, Because compared to a normal non-hybrid car, hybrid cars have two times more copper in them.

  20. 1. having pebble mine put in place, although it would give us access to a large amount of copper, it would destroy one of Alaska’s largest salmon fisheries.

    6. in terms of wild salmon production, Bristol bay is one of the biggest producers of salmon in the state. its worth about 1.5 billion dollars and gives jobs to over 20 thousand people.

    7. the area to be mined is owned by the state of Alaska.

    8. the pebble partnership is a company that was made to influence and facilitate areas of Alaska that should be used for mining resources.

    9. the streams that would be effected would be any stream that is a spawning ground for salmon. they are usually very clean waters and having all of the by products from the mine enter those waters would greatly effect the spawning rate of the salmon.

    10. it needs to be proven that there are salmon currently living and spawning in the waters in order for it to be protected.

    11. it would operate for at least 100 years and its footprint would last almost forever.

    12. although there isn’t a 100% agreement on it, its primarily against it. lots of cultures that rely on subsistence fishing and hunting in that area depend heavily on those waters to be clean and provide as much fish as possible, so they are very concerned that they are going to loose a lot of their needed fish from the mine. but on the other side, people state that since copper is a very valuable resource, that mining it would greatly benefit Alaska’s economy.

    14. lf you were to catch 50% of the sustainable amount that would leave you with plenty of salmon to come back next year and spawn, but it also doesn’t allow for the salmon to begin to over populate the waters.

    15. i would say no, because copper is such a common resource in todays life, its almost impossible to live without it unless you’re entirely off the grid. and on top of that, there are plenty of other places in the world where you can mine into a large copper deposit that wont result in ruining one of Alaska’s strongest fisheries.

  21. 1. Briefly summarize the crux of the ecological issue regarding the proposed Pebble Mine in Bristol Bay
    Mining practices have a long history of being hazardous to the surrounding environment. If companies are granted rights to mine, the impacts could be catastrophic to the fish population, costing thousands their jobs and natives their way of life.

    3. What aspects of the specific form of mining and specific mineral being extracted is cause for concern for some scientist and environmental organizations?
    Mining the deposit would require tons of machinery and explosives, resulting in a man made wetland and a giant hole. When the sulfide ore is exposed to air and water it results in a chemical reaction, where sulfuric acid is generated. This acid breaks down metals in ores such as copper and gold which is toxic. This toxic waste can flow from the two headwaters into the bay killing the salmon.

    5. Which biological traits of sockeye salmon may make them resilient to these changes and which may make them sensitive?
    Copper is toxic, at high levels. Fish use smell to locate the stream they were spawned so they can reproduce and die. Amounts of copper affect their sense of smell thus hurting their sensory system. It being compromised makes them weaker at avoiding predators and finding prey.

    6. Briefly describe how Bristol Bay ranks in terms of wild salmon production compares to other locations
    It is largest wild salmon run in the world

    7. Who owns the land proposed to be mined?
    I’M HAVING A HARD TIME FINDING THIS. The state of Alaska pebble mine corp. has mineral rights? “In one such community, Igiugig, the village council on Thursday released a statement reiterating that its lands are “unavailable for use” related to the proposed mine”(The Washington Post).?

    8. Who is the Pebble Partnership?
    Pebble Limited Partnership (PLP) is Northern Dynasty Minerals, a junior mining company from Canada.

    10. What needs to be proven in Alaska in order for streams to have the highest level of protection from development?
    That there are fish present in them, in the lower 48 such as WA the surveys are not needed. Would decimate more than 2,200 acres of wetlands and waters, adding up to 105 miles of streams.

    11.How long is it estimated that the mine will operate, how long would the foot print of the mine remain?
    Proposed 20 year running mine operation, extracting 13 percent of the deposit. The proposed mine is estimated to span 13 miles. They plan to construct a 270-megawatt power plant and natural gas pipeline to transport the ore. In addition there would be an 82 mile double lane road. Storage facilities and a dredging of a port at Iliamna Bay.

    12. Briefly describe the concerns by local residents that rely on subsistence resources and whether there is 100% agreement or debate? What things did you hear from the two ‘sides’ of the debate?
    Against: The waste that would need to be stored/monitored, contamination to streams, Jobs not going to locals, mining is a finite resource where fishing is sustainable, kills the culture of natives, billions of gallons of water will accumulate after pebble closes and needs to be treated constantly, earthquakes, killing people with dam break, research not easy to read.
    For: Creates jobs, millions of dollars in revenues, jobs go to locals, tribes get paid, copper is needed in a lot of things, people against should take a no copper pledge and see how their life would be.

    15. If a person is opposed to the Pebble Mine and drives a hybrid vehicle (or anything that uses copper) does it make them a hypocrite? Why or why not?
    My personal belief is no, it doesn’t make someone a hypocrite. Copper is important, something most can acknowledge. It is a matter of it being the wrong place for a mine. To me the decision is a no brainer, we should not have something that is likely ecological disaster into an area housing the largest salmon run in the world.

  22. Cara
    FISH 110
    Bristol Bay Forum

    1: Bristol Bay is the only place in the world for spawning sockeye salmon, the only untouched birthing grounds anywhere in the world. If mined by people for the copper and gold the birthing grounds for salmon would be forever destroyed by the mining industry.

    2: Phenomenal resources, pristine eco-system & unique in the world. It has one of the world’s largest copper deposits in the whole world at an estimated 80 billion pounds of copper, 5.5 billion pounds of molybdenum and 100 million ounces of gold.
    Yes, it creates a lot of heavy challenges when considering the mine because of its pristine ecosystem, its unique birthing grounds to millions of sockeye salmon. A land that if disrupted by mining will never have the chance at ever coming back due to the heavy waste and destruction of land left behind.

    5: There is a subtle change to the sensory system making the salmon less able to avoid predators, find prey and home back to their birthing streams. High levels of copper will cause the salmon to die is the biggest way, small levels of copper will not kill the salmon.

    6: Bristol Bay is the #1 and last fully functioning eco-system in the world for sockeye salmon. No other place in the world is like the region of Bristol Bay, for Bristol Bay wild salmon count is among the 5-6 million. A pristine watershed with 125 years of success, a subsistence fishery that’s been going on for a millennium and of a sport fishery that cannot be matched anywhere else in the world.

    7: The Bristol Bay Corporation

    8: Pebble Partnership, an international consortium led by Anglo American that has assembled mineral leases over 330 square miles of state land.

    9: The streams directly impacted by the mine activity are the “nursery” streams used and needed by the “children” salmon, carefully protecting and preparing them for the much stronger streams and rivers ahead of them. Without these “nursery” streams the sockeye salmon cannot grow and many would die; making the return of mature sockeye salmon noticeably smaller.

    11: John Shively stated that it could be a 100 years’ worth of mining costing an estimated 7-8 million dollars to get it up and running. The byproduct is a huge amount of waste; an estimated 10 billion tons of waste, which would be stored and monitored forever.

    12: There is a huge debate between the local residents for the protection of the salmon and their subsistence ways. “Not just no but Hell No” The locals have joined forces with the environmentalists against the mine. The salmon is the backbone to the Bristol Bay region and a long way of life passed down from generation to generation. A way to spend time with the elders because they are in their comfort zone. Many without work rely on subsistence for needs and wants. It would be extremely hard on those that live there if the mine passed and with it a flow of outsiders to disrupt the land and people.
    There are some who have sided with John Shively for the economic opportunity and a division amongst the regions people is in the air. The weighing of pros and cons heavily on the forefront of people’s minds. “We need more than salmon; it doesn’t put gas in the Honda or pay the electricity…etc.”

    17: Environmental Protection Agency or Freedom of Information Act

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